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Mechanical pipe insulation systems are installed around cold cylindrical surfaces, such as chilled pipes, and they work at below ambient temperature in several industrial and commercial building applications. The thermal performance of pipe insulation systems is affected by ambient temperature and humidity and might vary gradually with time. Most published data are extrapolated from flat slab configurations of insulation materials but the measured thermal conductivity from flat slabs might not be accurate for cylindrical shaped pipe insulation systems due to radial configuration and longitudinal split joints. A methodology for measuring thermal conductivity of pipe insulation systems exists in the ASTM standard but it is based on a heated pipe approach with outward heat flow. When the average temperature of the pipe insulation system is below ambient temperature a test apparatus for measuring pipe insulation thermal conductivity is needed.